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Galactic gravitational fields
Ordinary inverse square (1/r2) gravity around a galactic central SMBH, being omnidirectional in nature, cannot produce this kind of structure. But, the highly directional hyperbolic (1/r) sheet of a central SMBH can do so.
Objections to all this
One might object to all this on the basis of Birkhoff’s and the “no-hair” theorems and even Newton’s law of universal gravitation itself. The no-hair theorem is not a mathematical theorem at all. It is a postulate, a tentative assumption that ideal black hole solutions of the Einstein equations of gravitation in general relativity can be completely characterized by three externally observable classical parameters. These are mass, electric charge, and angular momentum (spin).
Other information (nicknamed "hair”) about matter which entered a black hole "disappears" behind the black hole event horizon. Supposedly, it is therefore inaccessible to external observers. John Archibald Wheeler enunciated this idea as "black holes have no hair", the source of the name. But, it is now accepted that no information is lost in the formation of BHs. The HSMBH gravitational field can exist, hair or no hair.
Newton’s law is sidestepped by postulating a black hole gravitational field that has different dimensionality in cosmologically scaled space. On cosmological scales, unusual things should be possible.
With no strict mathematical proof of the so called no-hair theorem, mathematicians rightly refer to it as the no-hair conjecture. Even in the simplest case of BHs with intense gravity alone (that is, zero electric fields, no spin), this conjecture has been only partially supported by results of research to date.
Researchers have been working under the additional hypotheses of simple event horizons and difficult to justify assumptions concerning details of the mathematical and physical reality of spacetime near black holes. Birkhoff’s theorem does not apply because of the unrealistically simple conditions he requires. Kerr’s and other’s treatments are almost equally simplistic. In other words, there is no theoretical constraint, including from relativity theory, that would obviate the central galactic, hyperbolic (1/r), supermassive black hole, spin induced gravitational field.
This figure is also derived from Fig. 1. Regardless of the pathway through a galaxy cluster, light is bent by the hyperboloids, even when the ray passes through the thin part of a disk. The hyperbolic (1/r) gravitational fields act like connected parcels of spacetime having a refractive index > 1. The reverse Compton effect acting on the ray is permanent. The redshift process itself is ongoing.
Each galaxy retains its overall structure (except for those that collide), at least initially, because there are potentially millions of large black holes embedded in them. These black holes are not stripped because they are smaller than SMBHs and they are gravitationally trapped in the body of the galaxies like flies on flypaper. Over a long time ever since their formation, these BHs will have come to have their rotations evolve to be correlated, indeed, their rotations become parallel due to the extended frame dragging effect that is active in two dimensions and due to the stronger (1/r) link between them. These BHs will have correlated their rotations with the central SMBH and thus to each other. With so many large parallel spinning BHs embedded within them acting as surrogate central SMBHs, the galaxies retain their nominally flat 2‑D spiral structures unless they undergo head‑on collisions or extremely close encounters. Almost immediately, new central SMBHs will form in each galaxy
of naked SMBHs floating about in the universe.
galactic temperature gradients, (sections to be added later)
See the related blogs # 1 and #2